Research Fellow of RUC NADS; Dean of School of International Studies, RUC; Member of the 13th CPPCC National Committee; Chief Expert on Central Marxist Theory Project; "Cheung Kong Scholar" Distinguished Professor of Ministry of Education
In 2018, 40 years of China’s reform and opening up is the “China moment” in the history of world civilization, and it will inevitably induce the imagination of both domestic and foreign thinkers to explore the world significance of this historic event. The author of this book attributed it to "inclusive wisdom," and I highly agree that it is to grasp the core of the problem. In my opinion, it is "adhere to the direction and mix up." Teachers and students are happy to learn about the problem on the same channel.
China’s reforms have been carried out on the basis of adhering to the socialist road. This direction is a guide to the past and the present, and should also be the future direction. It should be noted that most developing countries in the world are politically moving toward the American-style political path. Can they develop? What about the people's livelihood? Take a look at our big neighbors, South Asia and Southeast Asia, not to mention many African countries that are never peaceful. The Philippines is established in accordance with the United States system of separation of powers, the Philippines is itself; India is established in accordance with the British parliamentary system, and India has not become the United Kingdom. Anti-factual law tells us that if China does not stick to its own direction and changes its banner, Western clubs will only have one more large-sized member that cannot be developed. As a result, the world becomes more monotonous, uncompetitive and inactive. The problem is that the "Western clubs" themselves are in great trouble. Trump, who declared that "America first," has almost become an isolationist, and the "soft power" that Americans are proud of is being greatly reduced. China’s own achievements, ineffective governance in non-Western countries, and the West in deep trouble have all demonstrated the correctness of China’s direction.
Under the premise of adhering to the direction, the Chinese who are born with practical reason have promoted a great change in blending and what works. In general, certain ideas or policies only reflect the needs of some people. Therefore, radicalized ideas and policies will eventually be "difficult to support." The Great Depression of 1929 was the failure of classical liberalism. The financial tsunami in 2008 was the failure of neo-liberalism. China is not without lessons in this regard. The purely planned economy before the reform and opening up led to economic difficulties. What are the reasons? In fact, the reason is very simple. In terms of ideology, the crowd can be divided into the left, the right and the middle. In terms of interests, the level of the crowd is more. Any pure and pure policy can not satisfy the needs of all groups of people. It is in this sense of common sense that policies must be hybrid. In fact, many Chinese and foreign sages have warned us of this wisdom many times. The Chinese people pay attention to the middle way of doing things in both ways. The ancient Greek wise men say that the best regime is a mixture of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy.
The 20th century was almost a century of forgetting common sense. Inclusiveness and blending were all behind the scenes. Fortunately, China has a great Deng Xiaoping. His "cat theory" has the most typical problem-oriented and practical rationality. The reform programs and public policies under this guidance are naturally inclusive and mixed. In terms of economics, the socialist market economy is a typical hybrid system and inclusive theory. Without a market economy, there will be no competition, little innovation, and no wealth; but an inevitable result of the market economy is the social division caused by unfairness. This requires the direction and policies of socialism with justice as the basic value to guide the market economy. The historical combination of "socialism" and "market economy" embodies the inclusive capabilities of the Chinese people to master the contradictory complex and complement each other's advantages.
The inclusive and mixed socialist market economy is actually a socialist political economy in economics theory. China’s 40-year reforms have had a huge impact on existing social science theories. The current social science theories should have a sense of respect for China’s practice because current social science theories cannot yet satisfactorily explain China’s reform achievements. For example, how do we calculate the role of political development capacity (including the ability to grasp the direction of policies, the ability of medium- and long-term economic planning, etc.) for economic growth? Another example is how to measure the effect of social structure on economic growth. It should be noted that in the history of the world economy, the United Kingdom and the United States, which are equal in social structure, have taken the lead in the capitalist economy. However, many developing countries cannot achieve effective development after the Second World War because they are deeply constrained by its hereditary land system.
The political development capacity and macroscopic social structure play an important role in promoting economic development. These "factors of production" do not belong to capital, labor, or technology, but they provide the basic institutional framework for economic activities and are "institutional infrastructure" for economic activities. When we examine the 40-year economic success of China’s reforms, we cannot ignore the impetus of political development capabilities and macro-social structure. We need to use an inclusive perspective of comprehensive economics, politics, and sociology to observe and study. Inclusive practice requires an inclusive review, as well as inclusive thinking and inclusive construction.
All of these are the challenges that the "China moment" brings to the world's ideological world. They are also a kind of valuable open space for thought. In the history of the world, the rise of every major world power will bring about the renewal of human ideas and changes in the way humans perceive the world. It is such an "opportunity for thinking" that the "China moment" brings to the world. Li Zheng's "China's Reform Philosophy" undoubtedly provides a competitive interpretation framework and a gift for "Chinese moments."
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